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        崇州懷遠三絕:傳統小吃擎起富民大產業

          星星點燈,懷遠“三絕”在他們的帶動下,闖出一片海闊天空叫響全國

           在今天的成都崇州市,百分之八九十的餐廳飯館,都少不了凍糕、葉兒粑、豆腐簾子這三道小吃。靠著世代沿襲、辛勤耕耘的手藝人,懷遠“三絕”美譽傳遍天下。而今,新一代的“三絕”師傅,在災后重建中抓住機遇,轉變傳統生產方式,擴大生產規模,搭著非遺的快車又將“三絕”賣到了全國各地,懷遠人已然將這些當地特色傳統小吃做成了富民大產業。

         

           懷遠三絕 葉兒粑

         

           懷遠鎮(俗稱分州)即古漢原郡故地,歷史悠久,據康熙州志《關梁》載:“崇地接壤吐蕃,唐時出沒不常,設一關以御之,則懷遠鎮所由名也。”從古自今懷遠鎮都是都江堰、崇州、大邑三地的交通樞紐,物產豐富,商業興盛,素為較大的集散地。因地域氣候、飲食習俗等因素,懷遠鎮的風味小吃,形成了自己的風格,懷遠當地流傳著:“元通場穿著,懷遠鎮吃喝。”的民謠。懷遠小吃其影響之深遠,可見一斑。在眾多風味小吃以懷遠“三絕”最為著名。“三絕”即:一絕葉兒粑其前身是普通鄉民家庭制作的野棉花菜饃饃,后經不斷改進而成具有特殊風味的葉兒粑。它的主要原料是糯米,包上肉餡或糖餡,用柑橘葉包著蒸熟即可,其特點是不沾牙、不沾筷、不沾盤二絕豆腐簾子制作工藝與制作豆腐相同,只是到豆漿凝固時,才將其一層紗布一層漿濾干成布片狀,然后像卷席那樣卷成筒,存放待其生霉。其霉純白,無異臭和葷腥味。據了解,這種食品已有400多年的歷史,食用時可蒸可煮、可炒可燴,又稱“五香簾子” 三絕凍糕(白色)系懷遠鎮蔣三麻子首創,他從民間打年糕,做凍饃饃傳統食品制作工藝中吸取經驗,以大米、糯米、豬油、紅糖、芝麻等為原料精制而成,泡如海綿,入口化渣,又稱“香油凍糕”

           懷遠“三絕”,汲取靈秀的邛崍大山之氣和甘甜的文井江之水孕育而成,為歷代騷人墨客所稱頌,現在更是成為廣大消費者筵席、家宴的必備佳品。也是由于水質和氣候的原因,同一主廚用同樣的方式在其他地方卻做不出這三絕。逾百年歷史的懷遠“三絕”,歷經了家庭加工、小攤販、合作社再到食品有限公司的不同形式,見證了時代的發展與腳步,亦不斷激發出新的活力。1990年,懷遠“三絕”赴京獻技,在亞運會期間,得到了中央有關領導和世界友人的歡迎,充分顯示了成都小吃在世界飲食文化中的地位。2008年懷遠三絕制作技藝入選成都市第二批非物質文化遺產名錄,2009年入選四川省第二批非物質文化遺產名錄。近年,懷遠“三絕”乘著入選非遺的東風,一時間風靡全國,其中以不粘牙、不沾筷、不粘碗的“三不沾”葉兒粑最為深受群眾喜愛,在民間有著“懷遠‘三絕’,葉兒粑最絕”的美稱。

         

         

           做大做強 “唐”字當先

         

           百年名小吃,對于每一代傳承人來說,意義不盡相同。在省道106川西旅游環線的懷遠路口,一家名叫“唐葉兒粑”的店門前顧客排起了長龍,此時老板娘唐映雪正忙著將一箱箱印有懷遠三絕字樣的箱子里遞給顧客手中。“在以前,懷遠三絕可能更多的是一種謀生手段,但對于現在的我來說則是一項事業。”“唐葉兒粑”的第三代傳承人唐映雪已從事懷遠三絕小吃制作和銷售多年。

           都說是懷遠“三絕”,為什么這個招牌卻單取唐葉兒粑“這都是大家的約定俗成。”唐映雪笑笑說,以前經常有人從成都專門開車來品嘗和購買懷遠“三絕”,但大家都不知道店主叫啥名字,只知道姓唐。久而久之,“唐葉兒粑”就這樣叫開了。當然,除了葉兒粑,三絕之二的凍糕和豆腐簾子在“唐葉兒粑”同樣不能少。唐映雪笑稱,唐葉兒粑其實就是懷遠三絕專賣店。唐映雪告訴我們,1958年,懷遠街上成立了一家集體小食店“東方小食店”,的爺爺唐明泉是員工中的一位。后來,小食店由唐映雪的父親唐君展繼承,他進行改良、創新,逐漸形成了現在的“唐葉兒粑”。“我原來是學醫的,家里卻讓我回來賣葉兒粑。”唐映雪最開始接觸家族生意,是在1992年。那時,她剛從成都衛校畢業。據她回憶,當時才21歲的還是一個害羞的大姑娘,顧客稍微多問幾句懷遠“三絕”的典故,她都會紅臉,更別說站在店門口吆喝生意了。可家里,唐映雪是大姐,妹妹讀書花銷大,一家人的生計都依靠一間僅16個平方米的小鋪子。雖然有點不甘心,可最終唐映雪還是跟著父親學手藝。后來,父親唐君展將小店從老街遷到了新大街,門面擴大到4間共有100多平方米,并增加了人手,父親年滿60歲時,唐映雪開始獨立經營“唐葉兒粑”,正式成為第三代傳承人。

           “生意本來做得挺好,卻遭遇了天災。”2008年,5·12汶川地震不僅給災區人民造成了極大的痛苦,同時也給懷遠古鎮帶來了創傷。唐映雪家中的4家店面因為地震影響都不同程度的出現裂縫,成了危房。“顧客進來都害怕,生意也是一落千丈。”唐映雪回憶,那段時期是她接手生意以來最難熬的日子。“看新聞里面經常聽到對災區群眾‘不拋棄,不放棄’的口號,就是這句話一直支撐著我。”唐映雪說,對于“三絕”傳承人來說,祖傳的技藝就像是他們孩子,在困難面前,更不應該放棄。抱著這樣的想法,唐映雪的傳統小吃店迎來了災后重建階段,當地政府要將懷遠的名小吃、工藝品等產業進行產品質量提升、逐步進行產業升級。這時唐映雪經營的“唐葉兒耙”首先站出來響應政府號召,以老店為基礎,在省道106川西旅游環線的懷遠路口增加10間鋪面近400平方米,同時成立唐君展食品有限公司,引進先進設備和QS食品安全認證,將生產規模擴大到原老店的3倍。“現在每天僅葉兒粑就可以銷售六七千個。唐映雪說,2009年10月懷遠“三絕”被列為四川省非物質文化遺產名錄的時候,他們的新店已經開張,優越的生產環境加上長年積累的口碑讓“唐葉兒耙”的名號越來越響,每天都有眾多顧客慕名來到這里品嘗和購買。時間一長,一條以懷遠“三絕”餐飲文化為主的飲食一條街在龍頭企業“唐葉兒耙”的帶動下逐漸形成,不少以前只在家庭制作的小店也來到這里興業,從此當地傳統小吃逐漸擺脫了單打獨斗的單一局面,從而轉向了集群式發展的富民大產業。

           創新引領 讓懷遠三絕叫響全國

           “振興懷遠‘三絕’,是一個漫長的過程,必須走一條可持續發展的路子,產業升級以及圍繞產業發展的合理布局加以創新引領,才是懷遠‘三絕’飲食產業的方向。”崇州市懷遠鎮黨委書記陳大林談起未來的發展胸有成竹。如今,懷遠“三絕”餐飲產業作為當地支柱性產業之一正有條不紊地開展著。“懷遠‘三絕’是懷遠鎮的名片,將帶動全鎮的餐飲業,在未來的經濟發展中起著至關重要的作用。”陳大林說,“我們將把這里打造成懷遠鎮的餐飲一條街,現在已初具規模。下一步,我們要對懷遠鎮的餐飲業進行產業升級,提升產品質量,加大產品的規范化程度,爭取做大做強,力爭3年內讓全鎮的餐飲業產值達到上億元的規模。”說這話的時候,陳大林眼睛看著窗外,眼神里充滿了憧憬。

           除了政府積極謀劃,另一方面,作為商家也在為下一步發展尋求出路。傳統技藝應該有所創新,生命力才會更長久,才會有利于非遺項目的傳承發揚唐映雪認為,打破傳統制餡或許將是方法之一。比如,她就曾嘗試著在傳統的豆沙甜餡和肉餡的基礎上,開發蔬菜餡兒等品種的葉兒粑。“可從市場的反應來看,大家還是更喜歡吃肉的!”唐映雪笑著說,雖然這次嘗試讓她經歷了失敗,但也給她帶來了一些啟示。“我把我們的葉兒粑做成了真空包裝,放到了電商平臺,哪種餡更能迎合大家的口味,讓全國的食客來說。”如今,“唐葉兒粑”的網店銷售量直逼實體店,間接地為唐映雪又開創了新的銷售模式。

           “三絕”做成冷凍食品,是經營者李虎軍的想法。有顧客說,要是像超市里的速凍湯圓一樣就好了。李虎軍說,顧客常常到店吃了不過癮,還要再買些打包帶回去。但是這東西又不便貯藏,因此外地顧客覺得不方便。說者無心,聽者有意。李虎軍決定做速凍懷遠“三絕”。總投資180萬元,李虎軍同他的父親及工人們花了三個月的時間,對原料選取、加工方法、冷凍時間及溫度,加以改進,摸索出制作方法。如今,從成都伊藤洋華到北京西單商場,超市的冷凍食品柜中,新加入了平日里只能在小吃店吃到的懷遠“三絕”。李虎軍率先“吃螃蟹”,主動適應現代市場要求,向傳統挑戰的舉動,觸動了手藝人安于現狀,固守小天地的思維定勢。這在“三絕”手藝人中引起了不小的轟動,也成為了成都眾多名小吃走新路的一個首創。“我的速凍凍糕、葉兒粑是新產品,還需要市場進一步檢驗,到時候根據市場反饋我還會對其進行改良。”對于這項創新,李虎軍做好準備并沒有認為一次就能成功。好在,李虎軍唐映雪這樣的新一代年輕“三絕”手藝人,已經開始嘗試、摸索。星星點燈,期待懷遠“三絕”能夠在他們的帶動下,闖出一片海闊天空叫響全國


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