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        您現在的位置:成都市非物質文化遺產保護中心>> 非遺論壇>> 正文內容

        余門拳:百年傳承 煥發新春

            余門拳在簡陽武術屆引發了一場發揚地方傳統文化,弘揚民族傳統武術的行動。

            中華武術拳種歷史悠久流派甚多,但追本逆源不外少林、武當、峨眉三家,其風格特點也是各具不同在四川民間峨眉武術廣受傳承,且高人輩出,人才濟濟,簡陽《余拳》便是出自其中的一種獨特拳術。

            上世紀初,簡陽石盤鎮余氏父子靠著一手余門拳在四川武術擂臺賽一舉揚名拳震四方,至今都為當地人茶余飯后津津樂道的傳奇故事。一個世紀過去了,今天仍有不少人在苦苦練習、傳承該拳技。2016年12月,在眾多余拳傳承人的期盼中,簡陽拳被成都市人民政府列為第批市級非物質文化遺產代表性項目,簡陽余門拳這門歷經百年興衰的拳術,在翻過歷史的光輝后,又迎來了新的生機。

           

            起源于宋代 揚名于青羊
            相傳,余拳由東漢華佗的“五禽戲”演變而來。
            據簡陽余氏家譜記載,余拳創立于宋代,世襲相傳。清乾隆年間,廣東潮州府余氏先祖自大浦縣清溪村遷徙于四川簡陽縣石橋鎮后,余氏宗祖世代習武,祖上常與釋、道及各流派宗師名家切磋、交流,逐漸融匯,糅合成兼有南北兩派風格的獨特拳種。余拳按地域歸在峨嵋派,融入了佛門禪功,考究人體生理穴位,動作突出攻防技法,以攻為主,具有手法多變、短手寸進、借力打力的鮮明特點,徒手套路分為五官拳、霸王拳、洪拳、七星拳、攀花拳、拐子拳等,此外還有鳳尾單刀、滴拳槍、寒士劍、流水棍、叉板凳等器械套路。
            將余拳名揚巴蜀的,是簡陽石盤鎮人余氏父子——余發齋和余鼎山。百年后,在當地依然有不少老石盤人津津樂道他們的傳奇故事。身為余拳第14代傳人,余發齋自幼喜愛武術,好學求精,善于博采眾長。其子余鼎山深受余發齋影響,勤奮武學,少年時期就已經在簡陽地區嶄露頭角。1916年,余發齋力克當時的武林高手白方、王建等,在四川武術擂臺賽奪冠,偶露成功。1918年,四川武士會在成都青羊宮舉辦打擂比賽,石盤鎮的好友鼓勵余發齋父子前去參賽,年逾花甲的余發齋不負眾望,擂臺上巧勝四川督軍熊克武的貼身保鏢李國超,從此憑借高強武技一舉揚名蜀中,拳震四方。
            同年,余發齋偕子余鼎山來到重慶授徒,立志將余拳發揚光大。1926年前后,余鼎山曾受聘于軍閥劉湘的二十一軍軍部,任國術教官,并在重慶山河壩擺設擂臺,先后任“怡圓”、“裕民社”首席擂主。1928年,余鼎山又在重慶“揚武國技社”擔任教練,同年,他參加重慶市“武壯士考試大會”,名列榜首。從此,余氏父子名聲大振,投師拜門者絡繹不絕,習武者甚多,桃李遍及重慶、內江、自貢、涪陵、萬縣、達縣等地,弟子多達數萬人,其中不乏女弟子。

           

            墻內開花 墻外結果
            新中國成立前夕,余氏父子不幸逝世。余少華、余森詳、余治斌成為簡陽本地少數堅持習拳的嫡系傳人。1964年,余少華受聘于成都體院傳授余家拳術,其子余森詳則將余拳傳播到自貢、內江等地。此后,余拳在簡陽當地便慢慢走上下坡路,鮮為人知。
            今年63歲,家住簡陽賈家鎮的余治斌,自工作后也很少練習余拳。“習練余拳最重要的是要有鍥而不舍的精神和堅韌不拔的意志,因為其中的艱辛不是一般人能夠承受的。”余治斌說,“我從10歲開始學習余拳,最基本的身法我就練了兩三年。很多余家弟子都因為受不了練功的辛苦而中途放棄。拳講究身法、手法、步法、眼法,更講究基本功。據余治彬介紹,余門拳的特點是手法多,變換快,直進疾退,以攻為主,攻方結全,架勢低矮,勁發剛脆。主要手型有瓦愣掌、螺絲捶、箭手;手法包括沖、挑、摟、抱、刁、鉆、穿、劈以及宰肘、掛肘、頂肘、壓肘、架肘、疊肘、坐肘等打擊性很強的方法。步法有上步、退步、換步、躍步、蓋步、插步、擊步等;主要步型是含機步、跪步、仆腿、弓箭步。腿法有彈腿、蹬腿、側踹腿、后點腿、連環掃腿、鴛鴦腿等。“這是一門很難練成的拳術,練武人不僅要把眾多繁雜的招式牢記于心,還要花大量時間來勤加苦練,方能小有所成。”余治斌告訴我們,30歲開始傳授余門拳,30多年來所教弟子數十人,但學成者寥寥無幾,多數學藝者跟跟他當年的師兄弟們一樣半途而廢,而簡陽輝煌歷史和文化價值,慢慢也就無人問津

            除了練功過程艱辛、規矩頗多外,維持生計也成了不少余家弟子放棄習拳的原因。余治斌回憶,以前練武是主業,養家糊口不成問題。而隨著時代的更替,武術漸漸已演變成集大眾健身、表演、娛樂為一體的傳統體育競技項目,投入與回報相差甚遠,這也是不少人放棄的原因。在20世紀初,他曾在簡陽試著尋訪各地散落的傳人,結果卻只剩十余名。“如今,雖然余門拳的套路拳法流傳完好,但是練習者都以年事已高,如果不及時傳承,很多的東西即將失傳余治斌遺憾地告訴我們,拳術里的高難度的動作,如今因自己年事已高,已經無法完成。
            然而余發齋和余鼎山兩父子的名氣和早年的傳播,余拳在川東和重慶一帶卻倍受推崇。據不完全統計,建國后,在渝中區、江北區、銅梁、南岸區、江津、巴南區、永川等重慶地區,有8000余人學習余拳,并參加各級賽事,獲得金、銀、銅牌等獎百余項。一時間,余拳傳承出現了墻內開花墻外香的尷尬境地。“任何武術都是有根基的,就像一棵大樹樹葉茂密,根部就必定是強壯牢靠的。”余治斌表示,余門拳在外地發展的良好勢頭,一方面增強了他的信心,另一方也堅定了他在余門拳發源地簡陽推廣余門拳的信念。
           

            走過歷史 簡陽余門拳迎來又一春
            簡陽瀕臨失傳的困境讓簡陽武術人看在眼里,痛在心里。一場發揚地方傳統文化,弘揚民族傳統武術的行動在簡陽武術人心中悄然滋生,日漸成熟。
            2007年,與余氏后人頗有淵源的簡陽市武術館館長張光能,帶領武術館全體教練走上尋訪余拳傳人之路。通過幾十次的探訪,他們成功尋找到居住在簡陽的余治斌等多名余家拳嫡系傳人。一番拜師之意提出后,遭到了余氏傳人的拒絕。“余氏家族一直延續著 ‘傳內不傳外,傳男不傳女’的傳承規則,為表誠意,一到逢年過節,我就帶著教練們登門拜訪,并多次表達將余拳發揚光大的愿望。
            功夫不負有心人,余拳嫡系傳人被張光能等人的真誠所感動,決定收他們為徒,悉心授以余拳術,并將多年珍藏、不外露的余拳拳譜拿出讓弟子翻看。
            2009年2016年分別被納入資陽市第二批市級非物質文化遺產代表性項目和成都市第五批市級非物質文化遺產代表性項目。政府的支持讓張光能余治斌等人看到了余拳在簡陽發展的春天“作為簡陽人,我們有責任發揚本土文化,作為簡陽的武術人,我們更有責任傳承和發展余拳。”張光能說,此后他們更是乘熱打鐵,經過多方籌備,簡陽余拳研究會成立余治斌等老一輩傳人和簡陽武術館教授任教。自貢、重慶、內江等地的余拳傳人聞訊前來,并表示愿意一起努力,將余家拳術發揚光大,永久傳承下去。
            簡陽市武術館作為市內唯一一家教授余拳的武館,深感責任重大。張光能介紹,他們正在著力搜集流傳各地的余拳拳譜,希望通過整合資源,挖掘其中精髓,重新編創出完整、統一的余拳現代教法,先在簡陽進行普及,然后進一步在余拳流傳的各地推廣。張光能認為,要將余拳更好地傳承下去,特別是在青年一代中進行傳承,路還非常長遠和艱難。

            目前,簡陽已經有上百人練習余拳。新一代的余家弟子,中國·四川國際峨眉武術節四川省第二屆傳統武術名人明星爭霸賽等多項賽事中榮獲大獎,多年來共取得了19枚金牌、33枚銀牌、45枚銅牌的驕人成績。按照保護計劃,我們希望將余拳簡化成一種能夠在學生中推廣的武術操,讓余拳的精神能夠廣泛地得到傳承。張光能表示,未來他們將秉承“以武健身,以德養武”的理念,計劃讓余門拳走進學校,積極開展全民健身運動,讓這門歷經百年歷史的拳術在它的發源地,廣為流傳,煥發新春。


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