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        望娘灘傳說

        項目名稱:望娘灘傳說 

        申報地區或單位:都江堰市

        項目級別:省級

           

            望娘灘是流傳在都江堰市及岷江流域部份地區的神話傳說故事。
            都江堰市位于四川省中部成都平原西北邊緣,地處岷江上游和中游結合部的岷江出山口。屬成都市轄。東南距四川省會成都市48公里。介于北緯30°44′~31°22′, 東經103°25′~103°47′之間。境內地勢西北高、多山區,東南低、為平原區。屬亞熱帶濕潤氣候區。岷江從市境西北入境,東南出境,流長47公里,將市境分為河西、河東兩大地域。河西諸山屬邛崍山脈東支,最高海拔2434米;河東諸山屬龍門山脈中南段的西干支脈,最高海拔4582米;平原區以都江堰市水利工程為最北端頂點,向東、南展開。境內山區峰巒疊嶂,峽谷幽深,景色秀麗,向有“青城天下幽”之說。平原區河流渠系縱橫交錯密如蛛網,灌溉便利,農業發達。
            都江堰市歷史悠久,文化積淀豐厚,市境內青城山是中國道教的發祥地,和中國古代科技結晶都江堰一道,被列入世界文化遺產保護名錄。都江堰市是全國歷史文化名城、全國文化先進市、最佳魅力城市。由于都江堰市早在新石器時代就是古蜀人的主要活動區域,是古代江源文明的源頭,特別是成都平原數千年的治水歷史,與都江堰市密不可分,因而產生“望娘灘”這樣的神話傳說故事。
           望娘灘故事講的是,很久以前,灌縣有母子倆相依為命。兒子很孝順,以割草賣孝養母親。兒子經常割草的地方,有一叢草長得十分茂盛,頭天割了,第二天又長出一叢草來,就是在冬天也綠油油的。兒子十分奇怪,撥開草叢,有一顆珠子閃閃發亮。兒子把寶珠帶回家,無處可放,就放在空米柜里。第二天母親打開米柜,空米柜竟生出滿滿一柜米來。母子二人從此不愁吃穿。
            這件事傳到當地惡霸那里,惡霸便帶人來搶寶珠,情急之下,兒子把寶珠吞進肚里。其后兒子口渴,喝光了水缸里的水不解渴,喝干了溝里的水也不解渴。母親見兒子難受,扶兒子到岷江邊俯身喝水。伏在江邊喝水的兒子變成一條龍游進江里。母親抱住兒子的腳不忍兒子離去。兒子掙脫母親向遠處游去。母親在岸上呼兒,兒子不斷回頭望母親,母親呼兒24次,兒子就回頭望了24次,每回一次頭,就出現一個河灘,形成24個灘,這就是望娘灘的來歷。
            兒子變成了龍,十分仇恨鄉人相逼,使他母子分離。當晚興起大洪水復仇、淹死了仇人,也淹沒了莊稼,成為一條孽龍。后被李冰父子收伏,鎖在離堆下。
            望娘灘神話故事是由更古老的奇相竊黃帝玄珠墜岷江死后,化身為龍協助大禹治水的神話故事發展而來,但望娘灘故事充滿母子間感人的生離死別之情。特別是變化為龍的兒子在江中24次回頭望娘不忍離去的情景,是故事充滿人情味的核心。都江堰“24個望娘灘”成為地方典故。
            故事曲折地反映了都江堰市及成都平原綿延數千年的水患和治水歷史,表達人們對水害痛恨的同時更對造成水患的一些社會因素的譴責。故事中母子情深的情節表達千百年前人們在災難面前無助的悲愴感情。對都江堰市及川西平原的治水歷史具有重要的認識價值。傳達的孝行文化、社會不公等情節,具有教育意義和思想啟迪。優美、曲折、傳奇的故事內容,有很高的藝術價值。


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